Mutable data types make programs harder to reason about. For example, before refs, we didn't have to worry about aliasing in OCaml.
But mutability does have its uses. I/O is fundamentally about mutation. And some data structures (like arrays and hash tables) cannot be implemented as efficiently without mutability.

Mutability thus offers great power, but with great power comes great responsibility. Try not to abuse your new-found power!

Terms and concepts

  • address
  • alias
  • array
  • assignment
  • dereference
  • determinstic
  • immutable
  • index
  • loop
  • memory safety
  • mutable
  • mutable field
  • nondeterministic
  • physical equality
  • pointer
  • pure
  • ref
  • ref cell
  • reference
  • sequencing
  • structural equality

Further reading

  • Introduction to Objective Caml, chapters 7 and 8.

  • OCaml from the Very Beginning, chapter 13.

  • Real World OCaml, chapters 8.

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