A Type System for SimPL

Recall the syntax of SimPL:

e ::= x | i | b | e1 bop e2
    | if e1 then e2 else e3
    | let x = e1 in e2

bop ::= + | * | <=

Let's define a type system ctx |- e : t for SimPL. The only types in SimPL are integers and booleans:

t ::= int | bool

To define |-, we'll invent a set of typing rules that specify what the type of an expression is based on the types of its subexpressions. In other words, |- is an inductively-defined relation, as you learned about in CS 2800. So, it has some base cases, and some inductive cases.

Base Cases

An integer constant has type int in any context whatsoever, a Boolean constant likewise always has type bool, and a variable has whatever type the context says it should have. Here are the typing rules that express those ideas:

ctx |- i : int
ctx |- b : bool
{x : t, ...} |- x : t

Inductive Cases

Let. As we already know from OCaml, we type check the body of a let expression using a scope that is extended with a new binding.

ctx |- let x = e1 in e2 : t2
  if ctx |- e1 : t1
  and ctx[x -> t1] |- e2 : t2

The rule says that let x = e1 in e2 has type t2 in context ctx, but only if certain conditions hold. The first condition is that e1 has type t1 in ctx. The second is that e2 has type t2 in a new context, which is ctx extended to bind x to t1.

Binary operators. We'll need a couple different rules for binary operators.

ctx |- e1 bop e2 : int
  if bop is + or *
  and ctx |- e1 : int
  and ctx |- e2 : int

ctx |- e1 <= e2 : bool
  if ctx |- e1 : int
  and ctx |- e2 : int

If. Just like OCaml, an if expression must have a Boolean guard, and its two branches must have the same type.

ctx |- if e1 then e2 else e3 : t
  if ctx |- e1 : bool
  and ctx |- e2 : t
  and ctx |- e3 : t

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