Fold Right

The map functional gives us a way to individually transform each element of a list. The filter functional gives us a way to individually decide whether to keep or throw away each element of a list. But both of those are really just looking at a single element at a time. What if we wanted to somehow combine all the elements of a list?

Once more, let's write two functions:

let rec sum = function
  | [] -> 0
  | h::t -> h + sum t

let rec concat = function
  | [] -> ""
  | h::t -> h ^ concat t

As before, the functions share a great deal of common structure. The differences are:

  • the case for the empty list returns a different initial value, 0 vs ""

  • the case of a non-empty list uses a different operator to combine the head element with the result of the recursive call, + vs ^.

So can we apply the Abstraction Principle again? Sure! This time we need to factor out two arguments: one for each of those two differences.

Here's how we could rewrite the functions to factor out just the initial value (we won't factor out an operator just yet):

let rec sum' init = function
  | [] -> init
  | h::t -> h + sum' init t

let sum = sum' 0

let rec concat' init = function
  | [] -> init
  | h::t -> h ^ concat' init t

let concat = concat' ""

Now the only real difference left between sum' and concat' is the operator. That can also become an argument to a unified function we call combine:

let rec combine op init = function
  | [] -> init
  | h::t -> op h (combine op init t)

let sum    = combine (+) 0
let concat = combine (^) ""

Once more, the Abstraction Principle has led us to an amazingly simple and succinct expression of the computation. One way of thinking of the first two arguments op and init to combine is that they say what to do for the two possible constructors of the implicit third argument: if the third argument is constructed with [], then return init. If it's constructed with ::, then return op applied to the values found inside the data that :: carries. Of course, one of the data items that :: carries is itself another list, so we have to recursively call combine on that list to get a value out that's suitable to pass to op.

The combine function is the basis for an OCaml library function named List.fold_right. Here is its implementation:

let rec fold_right op lst init = match lst with
  | [] -> init
  | h::t -> op h (fold_right op t init)

let sum    lst = fold_right (+) lst 0
let concat lst = fold_right (^) lst ""

This is nearly the same function as combine, except that it takes its list argument as the penultimate rather than ultimate argument.

The intuition for why this function is called fold_right is that the way it works is to "fold in" elements of the list from the right to the left, combining each new element using the operator. For example, fold_right (+) [a;b;c] 0 results in evaluation of the expression a+(b+(c+0)). The parentheses associate from the right-most subexpression to the left.

One way to think of fold_right would be that the [] value in the list gets replaced by init, and each :: constructor gets replaced by op. For example, [a;b;c] is just syntactic sugar for a::(b::(c::[])). So if we replace [] with 0 and :: with (+), we get a+(b+(c+0)).

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